Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand molds to form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any metal alloy.
The sand casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern, and sand mold. The metal is melted in the furnace and then ladled and poured into the cavity of the sand mold, which is formed by the pattern. The sand mold separates along a parting line and the solidified casting can be removed.
Sand casting is used to produce a wide variety of metal components with complex shapes. These parts can vary greatly in size and weight, ranging from a few ounces to several tons. Some smaller sand cast parts include gears, pulleys, crankshafts, connecting rods, and propellers. Larger applications include housings for large equipment and heavy machine bases. Sand casting is also common in producing automobile components, such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, and transmission cases.